East Turkistan declared its independence in 1863 as the East Turkistan Islam State founded by Yakup Khan. This new country was accredited and recognized by Ottoman, England and Russia. Unfortunately, this independent Turkish state lasted short time as it was occupied in 1876 by the China-Manchu state again and depended to China as Xingjian in 1884. As a result of the nationalism movement appearing in the Middle East in early 20th century, East Turkistan Islam Republic was founded in Kashgar in 1933. The lifetime of this republic came to the end in 1937. As a result of an event known as the ‘Three Provinces Revolution, East Turkistan Republic was founded once more. China which could not break East Turkistan rebellion alone; therefore, was supplied with weapons and army support by a secret treaty signed with the Soviets. The Red Army entered East Turkistan and brought the country under its power. The people of East Turkistan made another independence attempt and the Independent East Turkistan Republic was founded in 1944. However, the lifetime of East Turkistan Republic came to the end in 1949 after Mao seized power in China.
In 1949 the People’s Liberation Army entered East Turkistan and the Kuomintang commander Tao Zhiyue surrendered the province to them. Five East Turkistan Republic leaders who were to negotiate with the Chinese over the East Turkistan Republic’s sovereignty died in an air crash in 1949 in soviet airspace over the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. After occupation of China, Uyghur’s exile/migrant lives started from the 1950s to central Asia, Turkey, and other parts of the world. After 1949, a million of strong East Turkistan exiles in all corners of the free world could not come back to East Turkistan dominated by communist China. Many of the migrants/exile Uyghurs were from economically and or intellectually high-ranking families who had played a significant role supported Eastern Turkistan independency from China.